Indirect Language Learning Strategies

by Jonathan Cogley

The direct and indirect language learning strategies are complementary to each other. They work together and help learners in regulating the process of language learning. Indirect language strategies are so called because they manage and support language learning without direct interaction or engagement. There are three indirect language learning strategies mentioned here.

Metacognitive strategies
This strategies are beyond the cognitive strategies and help the learners in coordinating their learning. They help the learners to plan language learning in an efficient way and these strategies become important for successful language learning process when new rules, vocabulary and writing confuse learners.

There are three sets of strategies under this group, namely, center learning to give a focus to the learners; arranging and planning for gaining more benefits for the efforts spent; and evaluating learning helps the learners in evaluating errors and their progress.

Affective strategies
The affective factors include attitude, emotions, values and motivations that help in influencing learning in an important way. This group includes three sets, lowering the anxiety in many ways such as, by listening music; encouraging yourself and taking the emotional temperature.

Anxiety can be helpful for the learners for obtaining the optimum level of performance whereas too much of it is harmful for the language learners.

Good language learners control their emotions and attitudes in learning and realizes that negative feelings retard their learning.

Social strategies
These strategies are very important for language learning as language is used in communication between the people. This strategies consist of three sets, asking questions is very helps and helps in understanding the meaning, cooperating with others eliminates competition and brings group spirit, it results in increased confidence, high self-esteem and fast achievement; empathizing with others is very important part in communication, it helps in understanding other person’s view.

Social strategies can be used by learners for understanding and to be aware of the feelings and thoughts of others.

Along with these, learners can also apply the strategy of cooperating with others that is by doing the language learning process together with some conversations in the target language. Make it a daily practice to improve your speaking and listening skills.

These strategies in language learning would help learners become more efficient in their learning process. Therefore, make use of these indirect strategies along with direct strategies such as, memory strategies, cognitive strategies and compensation strategies to effectively learn a language.

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